Jeffrey D. Thompson, D.C., B.F.A.
Brain mapping research studies into
different brainwave patterns associated with different states of
consciousness has been carried out in major centers throughout the
country. The normal range of brainwave frequency activity in the
cortex neurons has traditionally been from 0.5 Hz Delta to 30.0 Hz
Beta. Most of the early brainwave research was concerned with sleep
studies. From these studies, it became accepted brainwave
nomenclature to associate Beta activity with externally directed
linear thinking mental activity, Alpha activity with internally
directed non-linear mental activity, Theta with dreaming sleep,
emotional elements and experiences and Delta with the deepest and
most physically restorative portion of sleep.
non-sleeping states, these brainwave patterns are associated with
various states of "waking" consciousness. High levels of Beta are
associated with high levels of focus and concentration, Alpha is
associated with inner mental "pondering," Theta with original,
creative inspiration, problem solving, visualization and Delta with
deep physical relaxation.
meditation studies, Alpha brain states are associated with a typical
"Zen" meditation, in which the attention is in a state of "open
focus." In this state, one's attention is directed to everything
simultaneously. Theta brain states are associated with out of body
or astral forms of mediation. In these states, one usually
experiences seeing the guru, experiencing places of beauty or peace,
and sometimes receiving great spiritual insights with associated
visions and sounds. These Theta states are also associated with the
classic Shamanic "journeying" experiences. Delta mediation states
are associated with being in the void or "white light" states.
These states are timeless, formless and linked to states of
suspended animation. Deep-level Yogic adepts can slow respiration
and heart beat to be virtually undetectable.
Studies here at the Center for Neuroacoustic Research have shown
clear and repeated evidence, in patients, of brainwave frequency
patterns below the traditionally accepted lowest Delta rhythms of
0.5 Hz. This would be brainwave activity as slow as one quarter
cycle per second, one frequency per 10 seconds, per one minute, or
even longer. Indications of ultra-slow frequencies are evident on
the EEG traces of certain patients experiencing extraordinary states
of consciousness. These states seem to be associated with very high
states of meditation, ecstatic states of consciousness, high-level
inspiration states, spiritual insight and out-of-body experiences.
Some of the higher Yogic states of suspended animation associated
with deepest Delta brain states actually continue deeper into these
below-Delta brainwave states, which we are calling the Epsilon State
(Epsilon, since it is the next Greek letter of the alphabet after
order to explore these deeper extraordinary states of consciousness
associated with Epsilon brainwave patterns, we have had to use
traditional EEG equipment in unique ways and to initiate the design
of specialized EEG equipment to measure frequencies this slow. Most
regular EEG equipment is not set up to measure frequencies below 0.5
have also noticed that whenever there are extraordinary meditation
states present, brainwave electrical activity between the right/left
hemispheres tends to synchronize. This synchronization of the
cerebral hemispheres seems to only happen in special circumstances
of consciousness - the "aha" state, the moment when the answer to a
problem occurs, creative inspiration, great insight and moments of
awareness of one's own existence.
have also been reports in the EEG literature from other researchers,
that there is evidence of extraordinary states of consciousness
associated with higher-than-Beta brainwave activity. These brainwave
patterns go from 40 Hz and above - in some cases, as high as 100 Hz
or more. The 40 Hz higher-than-Beta activity is now an accepted
brainwave state in EEG nomenclature being referred to as "Gamma"
brainwaves. We are calling brainwave frequency patterns
significantly higher than 40 Hz "Hyper-Gamma" brainwave states. More
recently, there have been reports by EEG researchers of ecstatic
states of consciousness associated with brainwave frequencies of 200
Hz, we are calling these frequencies "Lambda" brainwave states.
evidence of the 40 Hz EEG brain activity from the Neuroscience Unit
at the University of Birmingham has shown these frequencies to be
associated with higher levels of brain organization "binding"
information from all the senses together for a higher-level
awareness of unity of the objects of our perception. Gamma rhythms
also seem to be associated exclusively with higher mental activity,
including perception and consciousness. - since Gamma activity
disappears with general anesthesia. There is also evidence that
Gamma frequencies appearing in different areas of the cortex
synchronize themselves together in a more holographic manner during
these extraordinary states of consciousness associated with
"Shamanic" and "Mystical" experience.
states of consciousness that appear to be associated with HyperGamma
brainwave activity (at 100 Hz) and Lambda brainwave activity (at 200
Hz) seem to be described in exactly the same terms as we have been
describing our discovery of Epsilon (below 0.5 Hz) over the years.
It has seemed extraordinary that different groups of EEG
researchers, independent of one another, should find the same states
of consciousness associated with such divergent brainwave activity -
below 0.5 Hz Delta to above 100 Hz HyperGamma to 200 Hz Lambda.
seems to be a circular link between these two extremes of brainwave
activity and the states of consciousness which they represent. They
appear to be associated with the type of extraordinary states of
consciousness we find in the highest states of meditation, deepest
levels of insight, personal original creative problem solving and
high degrees of Self-awareness. We have surmised that these
extremely slow Epsilon brainwave patterns might have extremely fast
HyperGamma/Lambda brainwave patterns modulating within them - just
as the Hyper-Gamma/Lambda brainwave patterns are "riding" on a super
slow Epsilon modulation.
© 1999 – – Dr.
Jeffrey D. Thompson, D.C., B.F.A -- Center for Neuroacoustic
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